TeenHelp
Support Forums Today's Posts

Get Advice Connect with TeenHelp Resources
HelpLINK Facebook     Twitter     Tumblr     Instagram    Hotlines    Safety Zone    Alternatives

You are not registered or have not logged in

Hello guest! (Not a guest? Log in above!)

As a guest on TeenHelp you are only able to use some of our site's features. By registering an account you will be able to enjoy unlimited access to our site, and will be able to:

  • Connect with thousands of teenagers worldwide by actively taking part in our Support Forums and Chat Room.
  • Find others with similar interests in our Social Groups.
  • Express yourself through our Blogs, Picture Albums and User Profiles.
  • And much much more!

Signing up is free, anonymous and will only take a few moments, so click here to register now!


Current Events and Debates For discussions and friendly debates about politics and current events, check out this forum.

Closed Thread
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread
  (#1 (permalink)) Old
dr2005 Offline
Legal Beagle
I can't get enough
*********
 
dr2005's Avatar
 
Name: Dave
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Location: UK

Posts: 2,221
Join Date: February 14th 2010

Question Individual responsibility - September 6th 2011, 07:37 PM

Question for the floor: is individual responsibility (that is to say, accepting the consequences of one's own actions and/or inaction and dealing with them accordingly) something which is still being encouraged in modern society?

I ask the question because personally, I'm not sure that it is. Whether in corporate scandals or public figures dropping the ball, or even the individual going about their daily business, the emphasis seems not so much on doing the right thing as not getting caught (or caught out) doing the wrong thing. I've lost count of the number of executives I've seen duck responsibility for the failings of their companies, or politicians do likewise for their policies and decisions, and goodness knows how many try and pass the buck for the current economic climate. Beyond that, though, I also see people routinely break traffic laws, write or say things without any form of self-censorship, and act as if other people are merely to be used. We live in an age where everyone seems to know their rights, but no one seems to remember that rights carry responsibilities as well - and the more I see of the world, the more frustrated I get at it.

So basically, is this something which is a genuine problem or am I just being a cynical young man? Thoughts and comments much appreciated.


"The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall." - Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom

However bleak things seem, however insurmountable the darkness appears, remember that you have worth and nothing can take that away.

Quote:
Originally Posted by OMFG!You'reActuallySmart! View Post
If you're referring to dr2005's response, it's not complex, however, he has a way with words .
RIP Nick
   
  (#2 (permalink)) Old
TigerTank77 Offline
Rage is the best anesthetic
I've been here a while
********
 
TigerTank77's Avatar
 
Name: Ben
Age: 28
Gender: Male
Location: NY

Posts: 1,534
Join Date: January 5th 2009

Re: Individual responsibility - September 6th 2011, 10:19 PM

It's clearly not. I don't know when it started, but it feels like people now a days expect society to carry them through life without actually having to do anything themselves.

If I sat here and typed out everything I thought was causing it, I'd crash TH's server, but if I had to pick 4 things, I'd say

-Greed as a resort of unchecked capitalism
-Non-egalitarian feminism
-Rampant consumerism
-Self-victimization

I'm far too scatter brained right now to go into detail, but I'll be back later.


Often I lie wide awake, thinking of things I could make.
But I donít seem to have the parts to build them.
I am so scared of what will kill me in the end, for I am not prepared.
I hope I will get the chance to be someone, to be human.





  Send a message via AIM to TigerTank77 Send a message via MSN to TigerTank77 Send a message via Skype™ to TigerTank77 
1 user(s) liked this post or found it helpful.
  (#3 (permalink)) Old
Guile Offline
Head Jimmie Rustler
I've been here a while
********
 
Guile's Avatar
 
Name: Guile
Gender: Male
Location: United States

Posts: 1,616
Join Date: January 24th 2010

Re: Individual responsibility - September 7th 2011, 06:58 AM

Quote:
Originally Posted by TigerTank77 View Post
It's clearly not. I don't know when it started, but it feels like people now a days expect society to carry them through life without actually having to do anything themselves.

If I sat here and typed out everything I thought was causing it, I'd crash TH's server, but if I had to pick 4 things, I'd say

-Greed as a resort of unchecked capitalism
-Non-egalitarian feminism
-Rampant consumerism
-Self-victimization

I'm far too scatter brained right now to go into detail, but I'll be back later.
Not to mention an over reliance on other countries for natural resources, and the destruction of American Production through junk like Carbon Taxes, and other "Green" policies. They just go where the labour is cheaper, and the laws are more lenient.


Space Flight Awards

Geosynchronous Orbit (Kerbin)
Manned Capsule and return (Kerbin)
Space Station and Docking (Kerbin)
Equatorial/Polar Probe (Mun)
Landing Resulting in the Loss of a Kerbanaut (Mun)
   
  (#4 (permalink)) Old
Brandon Offline
Member
I can't get enough
*********
 
Brandon's Avatar
 
Name: Brandon
Age: 29
Gender: Male

Posts: 2,540
Join Date: January 6th 2009

Re: Individual responsibility - September 7th 2011, 04:36 PM

I don't think that individual responsibility was ever "encouraged," but I do think that society is deteriorating and, consequently, losing sight of our individual responsibility. Since I can't prove it with any evidence right now, I'll say that I just believe that humans are naturally corrupt and therefore require motivation to be individually responsible rather than individual responsibility being a biological drive. When we're talking about motivation, I think there's a lot of factors that come into play; surely life has been different in the 1960's than they are now, and if we are to compare those differences...perhaps we may understand the reason of the lack of individual responsibility, but we still don't agree with it. Even so, I think we're all guilty of lacking individual responsibility. I guess it all depends on someone's perspective because everyone has a different idea on what is responsible and what isn't. I can create many examples of driving that I would consider responsible even though it's breaking the law.

You're not the only one, though.
   
  (#5 (permalink)) Old
Stupidity Kills
Outside, huh?
**********
 
OMFG!You'reActuallySmart!'s Avatar
 

Posts: 4,500
Blog Entries: 10
Join Date: December 19th 2009

Re: Individual responsibility - September 8th 2011, 04:26 AM

Sociologically, individual responsibility is encouraged in many ways in a neo-Liberal society. For example, one study of crime prevention is "crime prevention through environmental design" (CPTED). The idea is architectural changes will discourage crime because it's more risky. However, it states the individuals must contact CPTED experts and it is the individual's responsibility to implement the expert's advice, otherwise if a crime occurs, it's the individual's fault. It's like saying everyone is guarunteed safety in a workplace but it is the worker's duty to ensure it is safe and report any dangers (second link).
http://utpjournals.metapress.com/con...n60x437232v27/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qf_LW...eature=related

Another example was from a brief violent bout in April 1994 at a women's prison. The prisoners were mistreated by the guards (being stripped by male guards then put back in empty cells wearing virtually no clothing and leg irons). This led to the Arbour report, which called for numerous policy changes for the prison. The prison skirted around it by saying if there is commotion amongst inmates, it's the guard's fault because they weren't doing a good enough duty, thereby protecting the warden's arse and other higher-ups.
http://www.justicebehindthewalls.net...arbour_rpt.htm

So, even when executives duck and hide to avoid responsibility, they actually emphasize responsibility of lower workers. It's a skewed responsibilization process but it's false to say responsibility has gone.

People break traffic laws for numerous reasons, one of which probably is they aren't penalized. In smaller towns, if you run a stop sign over and over because no police officer is there to ticket you, people spit at traffic laws and continue offending.

I disagree with your claim on the lack of self-censorship. My best example is when Tracy Morgan gave a comical rant about homosexuals but most people in the audience didn't find it funny and complained. I cant remember who said it but a quote by one audience member was people live in a highly sensitive society, where any amount of rudeness is shunned and people are easily "hurt" by it. People censor themselves quite often. Another example is when someone asks the average Joe, "how does this dress look on me?". They pretend to want a honest answer but if you say your opinion of, "the dress is god-awful", the person gets offended and doesn't like your answer. As a result, to fit in, people are informally encouraged to lie to please the soft skin of others. When they don't, they're blamed and full responsibility falls on them for being rude and uncivil.


I can rip you off, and steal all your cash, suckerpunch you in the face, stand back and laugh. Leave you stranded as fast as a heart-attack.
- Danko Jones (I Think Bad Thoughts)
   
  (#6 (permalink)) Old
dr2005 Offline
Legal Beagle
I can't get enough
*********
 
dr2005's Avatar
 
Name: Dave
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Location: UK

Posts: 2,221
Join Date: February 14th 2010

Re: Individual responsibility - September 8th 2011, 04:51 PM

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
Sociologically, individual responsibility is encouraged in many ways in a neo-Liberal society. For example, one study of crime prevention is "crime prevention through environmental design" (CPTED). The idea is architectural changes will discourage crime because it's more risky. However, it states the individuals must contact CPTED experts and it is the individual's responsibility to implement the expert's advice, otherwise if a crime occurs, it's the individual's fault. It's like saying everyone is guarunteed safety in a workplace but it is the worker's duty to ensure it is safe and report any dangers (second link).
http://utpjournals.metapress.com/con...n60x437232v27/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qf_LW...eature=related

Another example was from a brief violent bout in April 1994 at a women's prison. The prisoners were mistreated by the guards (being stripped by male guards then put back in empty cells wearing virtually no clothing and leg irons). This led to the Arbour report, which called for numerous policy changes for the prison. The prison skirted around it by saying if there is commotion amongst inmates, it's the guard's fault because they weren't doing a good enough duty, thereby protecting the warden's arse and other higher-ups.
http://www.justicebehindthewalls.net...arbour_rpt.htm

So, even when executives duck and hide to avoid responsibility, they actually emphasize responsibility of lower workers. It's a skewed responsibilization process but it's false to say responsibility has gone.
Interesting links. The problem with that last comment, though - in my experience at least - is that the lower workers in turn are reliant upon the "chain of command" in that organisation (that is why such chains exist, after all) and act accordingly. Therefore, if you try and pin responsibility for all the organisation on them, they will point you in the direction of senior management, so if senior management are passing the buck back you end up in the often-arising situation where no one takes responsibility and efforts are instead focused on burying the issue. As such, no responsibility is exercised or evident. In any event, the example I was thinking of was numerous cases of corporate misdemeanours and screw-ups - particularly related to the current economic climate - for which no one has remotely tried to admit culpability and everyone has tried to pass off on others. This to me seems utterly absurd: the very reason they command such salaries is because of the responsibility placed in them in such positions. Tradition was if the company screwed up on your watch, it was because you hadn't done your job properly and you acted accordingly. Nowadays it's almost like executives are made of teflon or something.

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
People break traffic laws for numerous reasons, one of which probably is they aren't penalized. In smaller towns, if you run a stop sign over and over because no police officer is there to ticket you, people spit at traffic laws and continue offending.
Be that as it may, it still doesn't excuse it or the cavalier manner in which a lot of people drive as a result. Ironically, such people also refuse to accept that they were in the wrong if they are caught breaking the law - I have lost count of the number of forums I have seen in this country suggesting that it is the speed limits, and not the people breaking them, at fault - or worse, if their driving results in someone being injured or killed. Instinct instead seems to be on blaming the condition of the road, or similar environmental factors, rather than how they were conducting themselves. That was the wider issue I was hinting at, and it's one not merely limited to the driving example used - I could equally cite binge drinking on nights out as another.

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
I disagree with your claim on the lack of self-censorship. My best example is when Tracy Morgan gave a comical rant about homosexuals but most people in the audience didn't find it funny and complained. I cant remember who said it but a quote by one audience member was people live in a highly sensitive society, where any amount of rudeness is shunned and people are easily "hurt" by it. People censor themselves quite often. Another example is when someone asks the average Joe, "how does this dress look on me?". They pretend to want a honest answer but if you say your opinion of, "the dress is god-awful", the person gets offended and doesn't like your answer. As a result, to fit in, people are informally encouraged to lie to please the soft skin of others. When they don't, they're blamed and full responsibility falls on them for being rude and uncivil.
Perhaps I should clarify - I was thinking more particularly about those like Pastor Terry Jones, who commit inflammatory acts (regardless of whether they should be considered as such - that's another debate) and then appear to act surprised when the self-evident consequences of that happen. That is a very high-profile example, but I imagine you get the idea. On the point you make about people being blamed or assuming responsibility when causing offence, I would say that is becoming less and less the case - more often than not, the onus seems to be being put on the person claiming offence as being in the wrong, irrespective of whether their claim has merit.

On a separate issue, you don't have to lie so much in the dress example as temper your language instead - if someone ended up looking like a sack of potatoes based on your advice they'd probably not take too kindly to it either.


"The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall." - Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom

However bleak things seem, however insurmountable the darkness appears, remember that you have worth and nothing can take that away.

Quote:
Originally Posted by OMFG!You'reActuallySmart! View Post
If you're referring to dr2005's response, it's not complex, however, he has a way with words .
RIP Nick
   
  (#7 (permalink)) Old
Stupidity Kills
Outside, huh?
**********
 
OMFG!You'reActuallySmart!'s Avatar
 

Posts: 4,500
Blog Entries: 10
Join Date: December 19th 2009

Re: Individual responsibility - September 9th 2011, 04:40 AM

Quote:
Originally Posted by dr2005 View Post
In any event, the example I was thinking of was numerous cases of corporate misdemeanours and screw-ups - particularly related to the current economic climate - for which no one has remotely tried to admit culpability and everyone has tried to pass off on others. This to me seems utterly absurd: the very reason they command such salaries is because of the responsibility placed in them in such positions. Tradition was if the company screwed up on your watch, it was because you hadn't done your job properly and you acted accordingly. Nowadays it's almost like executives are made of teflon or something.
For this, I agree. It's like playing the game of "hot potato", nobody wants to hold the hot potato so they quickly pass it off to whomever else, and that person passes it off to another person and so forth. However, their positions are likely the reason why they're not fully blamed. If a factor line worker screws up, it's no problem to fire them because they're easily replaceable, whereas there are few CEOs, so it would be difficult to find a competent person to be a CEO. Also, if a CEO is to be booted, it causes a massive shake for the company, whereas firing a factory line worker doesn't disrupt the company in any way.

I'm having a bit of trouble understanding your analogy of executives being like teflon. According to DuPont, teflon is cured between 302-429C (576-806F), so it's not fully resistant to high temperatures. http://www2.dupont.com/Teflon_Indust...o_compare.html

I'm not sure if that is what you meant, in that executives take the blame when the blame gradually builds or if you meant something else by this analogy.

Quote:
Originally Posted by dr2005 View Post
Be that as it may, it still doesn't excuse it or the cavalier manner in which a lot of people drive as a result.
Never said it did.

Quote:
Originally Posted by dr2005 View Post
Ironically, such people also refuse to accept that they were in the wrong if they are caught breaking the law - I have lost count of the number of forums I have seen in this country suggesting that it is the speed limits, and not the people breaking them, at fault - or worse, if their driving results in someone being injured or killed. Instinct instead seems to be on blaming the condition of the road, or similar environmental factors, rather than how they were conducting themselves. That was the wider issue I was hinting at, and it's one not merely limited to the driving example used - I could equally cite binge drinking on nights out as another.
My apologies, now I understand what you meant. I have a funny story about this. Last year, we were driving home from our weekly food shopping spree and passed by my grandparents house (they like a block away). This is on a residential road and we saw this clown speeding like a madman, going too fast, he couldn't handle the turn properly, so his car flew over the ditch. My grandfather hires people to mow his lawn and the guy heard the crash of the small tree, jumped out of the way, the car continued across the front lawn and hit a large birch tree. It was a teenager and he was insisting he was going very slow even though we pointed out the long skid marks on the road, the scratched up side-walk, and the car wrapped around the tree. The car wasn't drivable because the front axle was broken, the engine was ruined and the frame was bent, so the right tires were about 4 inches higher than the left ones. The kid insisted to his parents that he was going slow and the apparent poor weather conditions of a cloudy summer day with no rain, fog, slippery road or anything was to blame. The father didn't buy it, neither did the police officer we called.

To add insult to injury, the kid was a bit drunk, forgot his driver's license, wasn't insured and it was actually his mother's car he decided to use without her permission.

Quote:
Originally Posted by dr2005 View Post
On a separate issue, you don't have to lie so much in the dress example as temper your language instead - if someone ended up looking like a sack of potatoes based on your advice they'd probably not take too kindly to it either.
I'm of the philosophy that if they want my honest opinion, then I tell them exactly what I think and if they don't like it, I tell them they should've known there's a possibility of receiving negative opinions. I don't say things such as, "the fucking dress is a piece of fucking shit", rather I'd say something like, "the dress is like a laxative, it relieves constipation, so if you are to buy it, do so for only that reason, otherwise put it back on the hanger".


I can rip you off, and steal all your cash, suckerpunch you in the face, stand back and laugh. Leave you stranded as fast as a heart-attack.
- Danko Jones (I Think Bad Thoughts)
   
  (#8 (permalink)) Old
Kate* Offline
Newsletter Tips Writer
Outside, huh?
**********
 
Kate*'s Avatar
 
Name: Katie
Age: 31
Gender: Female
Location: Ohio

Posts: 4,647
Join Date: January 6th 2009

Re: Individual responsibility - September 9th 2011, 05:25 PM

I'm glad to see I'm not the only one driven nuts by this. It's not encouraged in society and it makes me want to scream at and shake people! Everyone should get the same consequences (or consequences based on the situation) regardless of social status or notoriety, but for some reason that doesn't happen. I hate when high profile celebrities "get off" after they do something stupid that the average person would get punished for just because they're famous with money. People can't learn if they don't get some consequences or they get themselves into something and then expect someone or society to "rescue" them from the natural consequences of their actions/mistakes.


Member Since: September 19, 2007
LHO: March 31, 2008- October 13, 2012

"Freedom is what you do with what's been done to you." Jean Paul Sarte
   
  (#9 (permalink)) Old
Xujhan Offline
Resident Atheist
I can't get enough
*********
 
Xujhan's Avatar
 
Name: Fletcher
Age: 29
Gender: Male
Location: Ontario, Canada

Posts: 2,024
Join Date: January 17th 2009

Re: Individual responsibility - September 12th 2011, 06:14 PM

As I'm sure you can guess, I have a whole host of opinions on the subject. I do get the feeling that the problem is much worse in some places than others. I live in Waterloo ON, which is a small city hosting two universities, is very multicultural, and is generally what I consider to be a shining example of the potential of western civilization. Obviously if you look somewhere like Detroit, the picture is less sunny.

Very generally speaking, I think it's fair to say that good people will raise good children and bad people will raise bad children. Obviously there are endless exceptions, but generally children grow up to be somewhat like their parents. How should we attack the problem then? Should we try to change the parents, or the children? In most cases, I think there's not too much that can be done to reform more than a handful of bad adults. Children, on the other hand, are very malleable. Even a child with bad parents I think is not usually a lost cause, provided that they learn how to be good from someone else. The obvious answer, then, is better education.

For one, I think that has a lot to do with why Waterloo is such a lovely city: two universities means a constant influx of young and eager minds, and there is a strong focus on learning, improvement and innovation here. It's not just the university students either; the children I teach, with very few exceptions, are generally happy to learn and are very courteous. For two - and here I'm almost certainly a little bit biased - I think a lot of society's ills could be cured simply by improving the education system. Someone who enjoys learning has infintely more possibilities in life than someone who does not, and I think that right now our education system churns out way too many of the latter. School is about a lot more than just learning specific skills; it's a large part of what determines a person's entire character. School is usually where you make your friends, and where you explore your interests. I don't have the answers, though I have ideas, but I'm certain that we are only making use of a fraction of the potential that schools have to produce happy, kind, responsible people.


The atoms that make up you and me were born in the hearts of suns many times greater than ours, and in time our atoms will once again reside amongst the stars. Life is but an idle dalliance of the cosmos, frail, and soon forgotten. We have been set adrift in an ocean whose tides we are only beginning to comprehend and with that maturity has come the realization that we are, at least for now, alone. In that loneliness, it falls to us to shine as brightly as the stars from which we came.
  Send a message via MSN to Xujhan  
  (#10 (permalink)) Old
dr2005 Offline
Legal Beagle
I can't get enough
*********
 
dr2005's Avatar
 
Name: Dave
Age: 31
Gender: Male
Location: UK

Posts: 2,221
Join Date: February 14th 2010

Re: Individual responsibility - September 12th 2011, 06:42 PM

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
I'm having a bit of trouble understanding your analogy of executives being like teflon. According to DuPont, teflon is cured between 302-429C (576-806F), so it's not fully resistant to high temperatures. http://www2.dupont.com/Teflon_Indust...o_compare.html

I'm not sure if that is what you meant, in that executives take the blame when the blame gradually builds or if you meant something else by this analogy.
I knew I shouldn't have used an analogy involving a polymer. For the avoidance of doubt, I was focusing solely on the non-stick property commonly associated with teflon, giving rise to this nickname. So it's more the ability for executives to somehow evade the fallout of corporate scandals which gives rise to the claim.

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
Never said it did.
I know - apologies if it sounded like I claimed otherwise.

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
My apologies, now I understand what you meant. I have a funny story about this. Last year, we were driving home from our weekly food shopping spree and passed by my grandparents house (they like a block away). This is on a residential road and we saw this clown speeding like a madman, going too fast, he couldn't handle the turn properly, so his car flew over the ditch. My grandfather hires people to mow his lawn and the guy heard the crash of the small tree, jumped out of the way, the car continued across the front lawn and hit a large birch tree. It was a teenager and he was insisting he was going very slow even though we pointed out the long skid marks on the road, the scratched up side-walk, and the car wrapped around the tree. The car wasn't drivable because the front axle was broken, the engine was ruined and the frame was bent, so the right tires were about 4 inches higher than the left ones. The kid insisted to his parents that he was going slow and the apparent poor weather conditions of a cloudy summer day with no rain, fog, slippery road or anything was to blame. The father didn't buy it, neither did the police officer we called.

To add insult to injury, the kid was a bit drunk, forgot his driver's license, wasn't insured and it was actually his mother's car he decided to use without her permission.
Ouch. He really wasn't making any friends that day was he?

Quote:
Originally Posted by The Man And XX Master View Post
I'm of the philosophy that if they want my honest opinion, then I tell them exactly what I think and if they don't like it, I tell them they should've known there's a possibility of receiving negative opinions. I don't say things such as, "the fucking dress is a piece of fucking shit", rather I'd say something like, "the dress is like a laxative, it relieves constipation, so if you are to buy it, do so for only that reason, otherwise put it back on the hanger".
I must admit the laxative comparison is a new one on me, but otherwise yes I agree with what you're saying. Hence my comment about tempering the language rather than lying to avoid offence, which as I say can be just as damaging.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Xujhan View Post
For two - and here I'm almost certainly a little bit biased - I think a lot of society's ills could be cured simply by improving the education system. Someone who enjoys learning has infintely more possibilities in life than someone who does not, and I think that right now our education system churns out way too many of the latter. School is about a lot more than just learning specific skills; it's a large part of what determines a person's entire character. School is usually where you make your friends, and where you explore your interests. I don't have the answers, though I have ideas, but I'm certain that we are only making use of a fraction of the potential that schools have to produce happy, kind, responsible people.
I think that is a very good point - as you say, the vast majority of formative experiences happen in that phase so the impact the education system can have is considerable. Like yourself, I don't know what the answer is and I suspect it's going to take a long time to make lasting changes, but I agree education has a large part to play in this.


"The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall." - Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom

However bleak things seem, however insurmountable the darkness appears, remember that you have worth and nothing can take that away.

Quote:
Originally Posted by OMFG!You'reActuallySmart! View Post
If you're referring to dr2005's response, it's not complex, however, he has a way with words .
RIP Nick
   
Closed Thread

Bookmarks

Tags
individual, responsibility

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off




All material copyright ©1998-2019, TeenHelp.
Terms | Legal | Privacy | Conduct | Complaints

Powered by vBulletin®.
Copyright ©2000-2019, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Search engine optimization by vBSEO.
Theme developed in association with vBStyles.